Logic studies in the abstract the type of reasoning we employ when we make arguments that aim to establish some point using reasons. Using a formal language, logic studies the ways in which conclusions of arguments follow from, and the ways in which conclusions do not follow from the premises of arguments. That is, logic investigates the differences between valid and invalid argument forms.
Rather than a psychological study into how people actually reason, logic aims to give an account of the principles that govern any and all well-formed arguments; in this way, logic might be seen as providing guidance for how to reason well. Our hope is that by learning the basic principles of logic, becoming proficient in using a formal language, and discovering valid and invalid argument forms you will be able to analyze, reconstruct, and evaluate the arguments you encounter on a daily basis more rigorously than you were able to prior to taking the class.
TEXT: Modern Logic: A Text in Elementary Symbolic Logic, Graeme Forbes.