PHIL 418 A: Jewish Philosophy

Meeting Time: 
TTh 11:30am - 1:20pm
Location: 
SAV 136
SLN: 
19075
Joint Sections: 
JEW ST 418 A
Instructor:
Michael A. Rosenthal

Syllabus Description:

PHIL 418A/ JSIS B 418A Modern Jewish Philosophy (Winter 2018)

Tu Th 11:30-1:20pm (Savery 136)                                        

Prof. Michael Rosenthal

Office: Savery M382

Phone: (206) 685-2655

E-mail: rosentha@u.washington.edu

Office Hours: Tu 2-3pm; W 1-2pm; and by appointment.

Home Web Page: https://phil.washington.edu/people/michael-rosenthal

Canvas Course Web Page: https://canvas.uw.edu/courses/1186868

 

Course Description

The Enlightenment defined the course of modern Jewish philosophy. It criticized traditional notions of revelation and it reconfigured the relation of the Jewish community to the nascent liberal state. Radical figures like Spinoza claimed that prophecy was not a means to achieve philosophical wisdom but only a useful way of directing people to help each other in society. More moderate thinkers like Mendelssohn thought that Judaism should be a voluntary community based on belief, which submitted to the authority of the state, rather than an independent political entity. The idea of a normative symbiosis of Jewish thought with its surrounding culture reached an apotheosis in the early twentieth century neo-Kantianism of Hermann Cohen. Even those who rejected the enlightenment realized that it was impossible to avoid its influence. Marx argued that the solution to the so-called “Jewish Question” was the complete elimination of religion that would come about through the Communist revolution. Theodor Herzl and the early Zionists believed that assimilation was doomed to failure and that the Jews had to adopt the idea of a nation-state based on a homogenous population as a political goal. In response to the alienation of the modern world Martin Buber crafted a romantic vision of religious experience based on creative readings of Hasidic stories. After the debacle of the First World War, Jewish thinkers called into question these now seemingly naïve utopian dreams, whether liberal or Marxist, and offered new ways of thinking based on sophisticated theories of language and politics. But any hope that Jewish life could thrive in Europe was dashed by the rise of Nazism. The very possibility of Jewish philosophy was confronted by the specter of annihilation. In this course, we will examine this narrative through critical reading and discussion of key philosophical texts.

 

Course Requirements

Participation: There are several basic skills involved in philosophy, including reading critically, writing argumentatively, listening carefully, and talking constructively about ideas. If you do not attend class regularly you will not be able to participate and develop some of these skills, especially listening and talking. Lack of participation may affect your final grade in a variety of ways. If you miss class you will have less time to prepare your assignments. You will be less prepared to write your discussion response and papers. It is in your interest both in terms of your grade and your education to participate regularly in class.

Discussion Questions: Each week there will be a set of discussion questions and you are required to type a response to two of them, one due at the beginning of class on Tuesday, the other at the beginning of class on Thursday. You are required to both upload your response to the appropriate assignment page on the course Canvas site and also bring a printed copy to class. The questions for the following week will be available immediately after class on the course Canvas assignment page. There will be ten sets of questions and nineteen responses. Any answer that is deposited in the drop box after the start of class will be awarded a maximum of 2 points. Each satisfactory response received by the deadline is worth 5 points. The first time a response is judged unsatisfactory it will be given 4 points. Each time thereafter it will be worth 2 points. A satisfactory response shows an understanding of the question, some comprehension of the texts, and an effort to engage in critical analysis and discussion of the question and texts. If you do not turn in a response you will be given 0 points. I will award one point (up to a total of five points for the quarter) of extra credit for each response I judge to be excellent. This assignment is worth a total of 100 points. You need a total of 53 points to pass this assignment.

Midterm Exam: You are required to complete a take-home midterm examination. The questions will be distributed in class on Thursday, February 1st, and your answers will be due before the beginning of class on Tuesday, February 6th in the relevant course Canvas assignment page. The exam will be worth a total of 150 points. You need a minimum of 80 points to pass this assignment.

Final Exam: You are required to complete a take-home final examination. The questions will be distributed in class on Thursday, March 8th, and your answers will be due at noon on Wednesday, March 14th in the relevant course Canvas assignment page. The exam will be worth a total of 150 points. You need a minimum of 80 points to pass this assignment.

Final Paper Option: Undergraduates are allowed with instructor permission and graduate students are required to write a final 10-12 page paper instead of writing the final exam. All students must ask permission from the instructor at least three weeks before the end of the quarter. Students who are given permission are required to submit a topic, abstract, and annotated bibliography at least two weeks before the end of the quarter and receive instructor’s permission to proceed to the final draft. The paper will be due at the same time as the final exam would be due, i.e., at noon on Wednesday, March 14th in the relevant course Canvas assignment page. The paper will be worth a total of 150 points. You need a minimum of 80 points to pass this assignment.

Final Grade:  Your final grade will be computed on the basis of the assignments you have turned in.  There is a total possible point score of 400 points.  You will find a conversion table (in Excel format) in the “Files” section of the course Canvas page. (Please note that while I will use this table as a basis for the final grades in the course I reserve the right to make adjustments to it in the service of fairness.)

Nota Bene:  (1) In order to pass this course students are required to:  a) have enough total points (i.e., at least 212 points); and also b) pass (i.e., receive at least 53 points in the discussion questions and 80 points for the exams) in two of the three components of the course (i.e., the discussion questions, the midterm exam, and the final exam). If you have enough total points to pass but do not pass two of the three components you will fail the course.  Absolutely no exceptions will be made to this policy.

(2) In some cases, when I calculate the final grade, I will also consider such factors as improvement and class participation.

(3) This course will follow the policies established by the Jackson School as listed and explained in the attached handout. If you have any questions regarding these policies, please do not hesitate to contact the instructor.

 

Books

The following books are required. You can either purchase them at the University Bookstore or check them out from the reserve collection at Odegaard Library:

Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations: Essays and Reflections. Schocken, 1969. (ISBN: 978-0805202410).

Buber, Martin. I and Thou. Free Press, 1971. (ISBN: 978-0684717258).

Cohen, Hermann. Reason and Hope: Selections from the Jewish Writings of Hermann Cohen. Hebrew Union College Press, 1993. (ISBN: 0-87820-211-0)

Hess, Moses. The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings. Cambridge University Press, 2004. (ISBN: 0 521 38756-6) [NOT AVAILABLE TO PURCHASE]

Herzl, Theodor. The Jewish State. Dover, 1989 (ISBN: 978-0486258492).

Mendelssohn, Moses. Jerusalem. University Press of New England, 1983. (ISBN: 087451-263-8).

Rosenzweig, Franz. Philosophical and Theological Writings. Hackett, 2000. (ISBN: 978-0872204720).

Spinoza, B. Theological-Political Treatise. 2nd Edition. Hackett Publishing, 2001. (ISBN: 0-87220-607-6).

Strauss, Leo. The Early Writings: 1921-1932. SUNY Press, 2002. (ISBN: 978-0791453308).

 

The following book is recommended reading for the course and is also available at the University Bookstore and on reserve at Odegaard library:

Morgan, M., and Gordon, P., The Cambridge Companion to Modern Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge, 2007. (ISBN: 978-0521012553).

 

Reading and Discussion Schedule

The following is a weekly guide to the discussion themes and reading assignment. While I will generally stay on track, I reserve the right to move more quickly or more slowly or even change the assignments as the quarter progresses.

 

Week 1-2: The Enlightenment

*The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that began in the late seventeenth century and that emphasized the rational critique of received beliefs, whether religious or political. The Enlightenment affected Jews in several ways. There was greater social and political toleration based on the distinction between belief and practice, which itself was a by-product of the Protestant Reformation. Although the Jews held beliefs that were anathema to their Christian rulers, as long as they obeyed the sovereign in their actions they were to have equal rights. There also began a movement among Jews to reform their beliefs and practices in accordance with a rational critique of tradition. This week and next we will examine two important philosophical representatives of the Enlightenment: Spinoza, who was expelled from the Jewish community of Amsterdam in the middle of the 17th century, and Moses Mendelssohn, who made a name for himself as the most prominent Jewish thinker in Berlin at the end of the 18th century. Spinoza has always been a problematic thinker to the Jewish tradition. On the one hand, he was deeply critical of many of the central theological tenets of Judaism. On the other hand, he offered a new and modern way of reforming the claims of religion. Mendelssohn was critical of Spinoza but accepts some of his key points, especially in the domain of the relation of the Jews to the modern liberal state.

 

Th 1/4 – Introduction; Spinoza, TTP, Preface, chapters 1-7. [Recommended: MJP, ch. 2]

 Tu 1/9 –Spinoza, TTP, chapters 14-20. Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, Section I (pages 33-75). [Recommended: MJP, ch. 3] 

Th 1/11 – Mendelssohn, Jerusalem, Section II (pages 77-139).

 

Week 3: Romantic Nationalists and Ironists

*The Enlightenment offered new possibilities to Jews, even in countries where they were not fully embraced as citizens, such as Germany. Inspired by Spinoza, but wanting to go farther than Mendelssohn, idiosyncratic thinkers like Moses Hess and Heinrich Heine placed their vision of Judaism—one especially influenced by Spinozism—at the center of cultural history, whether of mankind in the case of Hess or of Germany in the case of Heine. Both thinkers were extremely influential. Both knew Marx and influenced the development of socialism. Hess moved from a Universalist point of view to one that recognized the special importance of the Jewish people. Heine gave voice to a more nuanced cultural and political identity for Jews, one that was always tinged by irony.

 

Tu 1/16 – Moses Hess, The Holy History of Mankind   [Recommended: “Introduction” by Shlomo Avineri] (Available on Reserve and as a Xerox)

Th 1/18 – Heinrich Heine, On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, excerpts (Xerox).

 

Week 4: The “Jewish Question”

*The Enlightenment did not have all its desired effects. Even in those countries in which Jews were given citizenship they were not always treated as equals. In Eastern Europe things remained much the way they had been or in fact became worse as nationalist movements tended to squeeze the Jews even further to the margin of society. In response to the perceived failure of the enlightened liberal state, Karl Marx—whose father was born a Jew, converted to Christianity, and had his children baptized—posed the so-called “Jewish Question,” and offered his response to it. The Communist revolution would eliminate the conditions that produced the need for religion in the first place. Judaism would evaporate along with other religions in a communist utopia. The other response—developed by several thinkers, one whom was an early colleague of Marx, Moses Hess, and the most important of whom was a Viennese journalist named Theodor Herzl—was Zionism. Jews should build their own state in their historic homeland and preserve their national autonomy with modern means rather than relying on the good will of others.

 

Tu 1/23 – Karl Marx, “The Jewish Question” (Xerox).

Th 1/25 – Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State.

 

Week 5: Hermann Cohen and neo-Kantianism

*The Enlightenment ideal reached its intellectual zenith during the Wilhelmine Empire (1871-1918) in Germany. In comparison with other countries, France, for example, German Jews were late to receive full citizenship rights, but when they did it unleashed a short, but intense period of social and intellectual activity. Hermann Cohen is arguably the best representative of this achievement. He was one of the first Jews appointed to a university professorship and was the leader of the so-called Marburg School of the neo-Kantian revival. He sought to show that the foundation of morality was best expressed in the Jewish prophetic tradition, which could be articulated rationally in terms of Kant’s moral philosophy. He was a vociferous critic of Spinoza, who he thought had betrayed his own people out of spite. He rejected Zionism as well, because he thought that the liberal social state offered the best hope for the Jewish people. In the Ethics of Maimonides, we will see his attempt to articulate a Jewish Enlightenment, based on a platonic and Kantian reading of the great medieval Jewish philosopher, Moses Maimonides.

 

Tu 1/30 – Cohen, [Recommended: MJP, ch. 5]

Th 2/1 – Cohen, [Midterm Exam Distributed]

 

Week 6: Martin Buber: from the Mystical to the Dialogical

*In the period leading up to the First World War many Jews reacted against what they perceived as a desiccated synthesis with Kantian thought. There was an increased interest in the irrational, mystical dimensions of Judaism. After the debacle of the war this mysticism was tempered by social critique, though it still had its irrational elements. In his own intellectual journey Martin Buber represents this transition. In his early work he moved away from Kantian rationalism toward mysticism. He wrote about the “oriental” sources of Jewish thinking and translated eastern European Hasidic stories for a German audience. After the war he articulated the principles of a more socially engaged, “dialogical” style of philosophy, and he became a Zionist, albeit one who also recognized the claims of the Palestinians.

 

Tu 2/6 – Buber, I and Thou, First Part (53-86), Second Part (87-122). [Recommended: MJP, ch. 6] [Midterm Exam Due]

Th 2/8 – Buber, I and Thou, Third Part (123-168).

 

Week 7: Walter Benjamin: between Marxism and Mysticism

*Walter Benjamin is not always read as a philosopher but more often as a literary critic. While it is true that we do not find any systematic philosophizing in his writings, nonetheless, we can discover some important philosophical points. There are two schools of interpreters: one, led prominently by Gershom Scholem, the great scholar of Jewish mysticism, claims that Benjamin was a sort of modern Jewish mystic; the other, led by Theodor Adorno of the famous “Frankfurt School,” claims that he was a marxist. It is indisputable that he went through clear phases of each, but in the end perhaps Benjamin is something else. His obsessive commentary on literary texts, his sharp-eyed criticism of capitalist society, and his belief that language itself can intervene, messianically as it were, in history, marks him as a truly sui-generis thinker of Jewish modernity.

 

Tu 2/13 – Benjamin, Illuminations, “Franz Kafka” (111-140), “Some Reflections on Kafka” (141-146), “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” (217-252).  [Recommended: MJP, ch. 9]

Th 2/15 – Benjamin, Illuminations, “Theses on the Philosophy of History” (253-264).

 

Week 8: Franz Rosenzweig: Revelation as Orientation

*On the cusp of converting to Christianity Franz Rosenzweig rediscovered Judaism and went on to become one of its most important twentieth century thinkers. Although he had been a student of the historian Friedrich Meinecke and wrote his dissertation on Hegel, he rejected the historicism that had prevailed in the study of religion and of Judaism in particular. And, although he was an admirer, he did not follow Hermann Cohen’s Kantian rationalism. Instead, based on his reading of the German Romantics—Schelling in particular—Rosenzweig developed a quasi-mystical system of idealism in which Revelation is the foundation. In Frankfurt after WWI, Rosenzweig met Buber and the two later collaborated on a new German translation of the Bible. He led the famous Lehrhaus until his death from progressive lateral sclerosis in 1929.

 

Tu 2/20 – Rosenzweig, PTW, chapters I-II.   [Recommended: MJP, ch. 7].

 Th 2/22 – Rosenzweig, PTW, chapters III-V.

– Rosenzweig, PTW, chapters VI-VII.

– Rosenzweig, PTW, chapter VIII-X

 

Week 9: Leo Strauss: The Theological-Political Problem

*Strauss has earned a notorious reputation, mainly through his contemporary followers, but his own work is a serious contribution to modern Jewish thought. There are really two main periods in his writings. The time before and after his forced emigration from Germany to the US. In the first period he sorted through the various options of Jewish life—assimilation to liberal society, an option represented intellectually by the work of Spinoza, the return to Orthodoxy, and Zionism—and found them all wanting. In his mature period, inspired by the writing of medieval Jews like Maimonides, he insisted on a return to the classical natural law tradition grounded in an idiosyncratic reading of Plato. We will focus on the early writings and examine Strauss’ critical engagement with medieval and modern Jewish thought before the Holocaust.

 

Tu 2/27 – Strauss, Early Writings, Part II, chapter II (“Zionist Writings,” 63-138). [Recommended: MJP, ch. 8]

Th 3/1 – Strauss, Early Writings, Part II, chapters III-IV (“Writings on Spinoza,” 140-172, and “Reorientation,” 202-224).

 

Week 10: Jewish Philosophy after the Holocaust

*The systematic destruction of European Jewry profoundly changed not only the social and political life of Jews but also the intellectual landscape as well. Theodor Adorno, the leading figure of the Frankfurt School, claimed that poetry after Auschwitz was impossible, and the same might be said of traditional philosophical and theological projects. The idea that a benevolent God had allowed humans to inflict such evil on his “chosen people” or indeed the idea that such events could be part of any providential scheme both seemed anathema to reason. Two philosophers who, although educated in the period before the war, nonetheless take the catastrophe as a central theme of his work are Emil Fackenheim and Emmanuel Levinas. We will read brief excerpts of their work to get a sense of how Jewish thinkers have responded to this enormous challenge.

 

Tu 3/6 – Levinas, “Bible and Philosophy,” “The Responsibility for the Other,” “Ethics and Spirit” (xerox). [Recommended: MJP, ch. 12]

 

Th 3/8 – Fackenheim, “On Philosophy after the Holocaust” (xerox). [Recommended: MJP, ch. 13] [Final Exam Distributed]

 

We 3/14[Final Exam due at Noon in Canvas Assignment page]

 


 

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS*

 

COURSES, GRADING, ACADEMIC CONDUCT

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is defined as the use of creations, ideas or words of publicly available work without formally acknowledging the author or source through appropriate use of quotation marks, references, and the like. Plagiarizing is presenting someone else’s work as one’s own original work or thought. This constitutes plagiarism whether it is intentional or unintentional. The University of Washington takes plagiarism very seriously. Plagiarism may lead to disciplinary action by the University against the student who submitted the work. Any student who is uncertain whether his or her use of the work of others constitutes plagiarism should consult the course instructor for guidance before formally submitting the course work involved. (Sources: UW Graduate School Style Manual; UW Bothell Catalog; UW Student Conduct Code)

Incompletes

An incomplete is given only when the student has been in attendance and has done satisfactory work until within two weeks of the end of the quarter and has furnished proof satisfactory to the instructor that the work cannot be completed because of illness or other circumstances beyond the student’s control. (Source: UW General Catalog Online, “Student Guide/Grading”)

Grade Appeal Procedure

A student who believes he or she has been improperly graded must first discuss the matter with the instructor. If the student is not satisfied with the instructor’s explanation, the student may submit a written appeal to the chair of the Department of Philosophy with a copy of the appeal also sent to the instructor. The chair consults with the instructor to ensure that the evaluation of the student’s performance has not been arbitrary or capricious. Should the chair believe the instructor’s conduct to be arbitrary or capricious and the instructor declines to revise the grade, the chair, with the approval of the voting members of his or her faculty, shall appoint an appropriate member, or members, of the faculty of the Department of Philosophy to evaluate the performance of the student and assign a grade. The Dean and Provost should be informed of this action. Once a student submits a written appeal, this document and all subsequent actions on this appeal are recorded in written form for deposit in a School file. (Source: UW General Catalog Online, “Student Guide/Grading”)

Concerns About a Course, an Instructor, or a Teaching Assistant

If you have any concerns about a Philosophy course or your instructor, please see the instructor about these concerns as soon as possible. If you are not comfortable talking with the instructor or not satisfied with the response that you receive, you may contact the chair of the program offering the course (names available from the Department of Philosophy, 361 Savery Hall).

 

If you have any concerns about a teaching assistant, please see the teaching assistant about these concerns as soon as possible. If you are not comfortable talking with the teaching assistant or not satisfied with the response that you receive, you may contact the instructor in charge of the course. If you are still not satisfied with the response that you receive, you may contact the chair of the program offering the course (names available from the Department of Philosophy, 361 Savery Hall), or the Graduate School at G-1 Communications Building (543-5900).

 

For your reference, these procedures are posted on a Philosophy bulletin board outside the Department of Philosophy main office on the 3rd floor of Savery Hall.

POLICIES, RULES, RESOURCES

Equal Opportunity

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The University of Washington is committed to providing access, equal opportunity and reasonable accommodation in its services, programs, activities, education and employment for individuals with disabilities. For information or to request disability accommodation contact: Disabled Students Services (Seattle campus) at (206) 543-8924/V, (206) 543-8925/TTY, (206) 616-8379/Fax, or e-mail at uwdss@u.washington.edu; Bothell Student Affairs at (425) 352-5000/V; (425) 352-5303/TTY, (425) 352-5335/Fax, or e-mail at uwbothel@u.washington.edu; Tacoma Student Services at (253) 552-4000/V, (253) 552-4413/TTY, (253) 552-4414/Fax.

Sexual Harassment

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If you believe that you are being harassed, seek help—the earlier the better. You may speak with your instructor, your teaching assistant, the undergraduate advisor (363 Savery Hall), graduate program assistant (366 Savery Hall), or the chair of the Philosophy Department (364 Savery Hall). In addition, you should be aware that the University has designated special people to help you. They are: University Ombudsman and Ombudsman for Sexual Harassment (for complaints involving faculty members and teaching assistants) Susan Neff, 301 Student Union (HUB), 543-6028; and the University Complaint Investigation and Resolution Office, 616-2028. (Sources: UW Graduate School, CIDR, Office of the President)

Office of Scholarly Integrity

The Office of Scholarly Integrity is housed in the Office of the Vice-Provost. The Office of Scholarly Integrity assumes responsibility for investigating and resolving allegations of scientific and scholarly misconduct by faculty, students, and staff of the University of Washington. The Office of Scholarly Integrity coordinates, in consultation and cooperation with the Schools and Colleges, inquiries and investigations into allegations of scientific and scholarly misconduct. The Office of Scholarly Integrity is responsible for compliance with reporting requirements established by various Federal and other funding agencies in matters of scientific or scholarly misconduct. The Office of Scholarly Integrity maintains all records resulting from inquiries and investigations of such allegations. University rules (Handbook, Vol. II, Section 25-51, Executive Order #61) define scientific and scholarly misconduct to include the following forms of inappropriate activities: intentional misrepresentation of credentials; falsification of data; plagiarism; abuse of confidentiality; deliberate violation of regulations applicable to research. Students can report cases of scientific or scholarly misconduct either to the Office of Scholarly Integrity, to their faculty adviser, or the department chair. The student should report such problems to whomever he or she feels most comfortable. (Sources: UW web page (http://www.grad.washington.edu/OSI/osi.htm); minutes of Grad School Executive Staff and Division Heads meeting, 7/23/98)

* Adapted from material prepared by the UW Department of History and used with permission.

Additional Details:

(Joint with JEW ST 418) The Enlightenment defined the course of modern Jewish philosophy.  It criticized traditional notions of revelation and it reconfigured the relation of the Jewish community to the nascent liberal state.  Radical figures like Spinoza claimed that prophecy was not a means to achieve philosophical wisdom but only a useful way of directing people to help each other in society.  More moderate thinkers like Mendelssohn thought that Judaism should be a voluntary community based on belief, which submitted to the authority of the state, rather than an independent political entity.  The idea of a normative symbiosis of Jewish thought with its surrounding culture reached an apotheosis in the early twentieth century neo-Kantianism of Hermann Cohen.  Even those who rejected the enlightenment realized that it was impossible to avoid its influence.  Marx argued that the solution to the so-called “Jewish Question” was the complete elimination of religion that would come about through the Communist revolution.  Theodor Herzl and the early Zionists believed that assimilation was doomed to failure and that the Jews had to adopt the idea of a nation-state based on a homogenous population as a political goal.  In response to the alienation of the modern world Martin Buber crafted a romantic vision of religious experience based on creative readings of Hasidic stories.  After the debacle of World War I, Jewish thinkers called into question these now seemingly naïve utopian dreams, whether liberal or Marxist, and offered new ways of thinking based on sophisticated theories of language and politics.  But any hope that Jewish life could thrive in Europe was dashed by the rise of Nazism.  The very possibility of Jewish philosophy was confronted by the specter of annihilation.  In this course, we will examine this narrative through critical reading and discussion of key philosophical texts.

TEXTS: Required: Illuminations: Essays and Reflections, Walter Benjamin; I and Thou, Martin Buber; Reason and Hope: Selections from the Jewish Writings of Hermann Cohen, Hermann Cohen; The Jewish State, Theodor Herzl; Jerusalem: Or On Religious Power And Judaism, Moses Mendelssohn; Philosophical and Theological Writings, Franz Rosenzweig; Theological-Political Treatise, B. Spinoza; The Early Writings: 1921-1932, Leo Strauss;Recommended: The Cambridge Companion to Modern Jewish Philosophy, M. Morgan and P. Gordon.

Catalog Description: 
Introduces the central concepts and themes of Jewish philosophy. Focuses either on debates within a particular historical period - e.g., medieval or modern; or on a topic - e.g., reactions to the Enlightenment or to the Holocaust. Offered: jointly with JEW ST 418.
GE Requirements: 
Individuals and Societies (I&S)
Writing (W)
Credits: 
5.0
Status: 
Active
Last updated: 
January 10, 2018 - 9:15pm