In the 19th century, European philosophy took a radically historical turn. Instead of trying to identify timeless philosophical truths, thinkers like Hegel and Nietzsche turned to an examination of history to understand our place in the world and our future. Many of the dramatic events of the 20th century were significantly influenced by their views, and those views continue to shape our own understanding of ourselves. After a brief overview of the 18th century intellectual background, this course will focus on the quite different philosophical systems of Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Addams.
TEXTS: Fichte, Introductions to the Wissenschaftslehre; Hegel, Introduction to the Philosophy of History; Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation; and Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols; Addams, Newer Ideals of Peace.