"Moral Arguments Against Zoos"

Emmerman, Karen S. "Moral Arguments Against Zoos." In Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics, edited by Robert Fischer, 381-93. New York: Routledge, 2019.

Given advancements in animal welfare science and public opinion, zoos can no longer justify holding non-human animals captive for entertainment purposes alone. It is now suggested that zoos are justifiable sites of animal captivity because they serve the dual public service of education and species conservation. This paper examines these two justifications and offers moral arguments against zoos through the lens of utilitarian, rights, and ecofeminist theories.